Today I will write about the phylogeny of Zebra dove. I watched it at Malaysia last year. Anyway, the smallest dove distributes in Japan is Red turtle dove, the body length is 23cm. In the lower latitude lands, we can watch a dove species that body length is 20cm ; Zebra dove. The difference of body length of Red turtle dove and Zebra dove is only 3cm. However, Zebra dove is more slim than Red turtle so Zebra doves are looked so small. This species lives in open habitats around the rainforests. They forages with walking and pecking so the behaviors of them are similar to the ones of Eastern turtle doves the commonest dove in Japan.
チョウショウバト (Geopelia striata) Zebra dove 160329 Pen Malaysia
This species was really cute and the calls were also good. This pic shows how they taking rests. I wrote the behavior and habitat of this species former. So then let's start the talking about the Phylogeny! The phylogenetic tree of Dove Columbidae contains three clades. Green pigeons, Imperial-pigeon and famous extinct species Dodo are grouped in cladeA. Clade B contains New-World dove, like Ground Doves. Clade C contains Turtle doves and Rock doves. Then, which clade does Zebra dove belong? The answer is Clade A. It is really interesting that stocky dove species like Green pigeons and slim species like Zebra dove belonged in the same clade. We know that the adaptation to the local environments affects to the morphology. Then, why the small body of Zebra dove was selected? To discuss it is really difficult now, because of the deforestation and the exploitation. Today Zebra dove lives in open habitats like farmland and around the houses. Whereby they possibly not lives in open habitats in the ancient time. I notes that because the open habitats were not enough at low latitude area before exploitations. So when the time the number of human was low, Zebra dove perhaps lived in the rainforests and adapted to the somethings in these forests.
Today I wrote about Local Adaptation and morphology. The examples of local environments on avian are foraging environments, nesting environments, physiological environments and so on. The most famous example of local adaptation and natural selection is Darwin finches. The research group showed that the frequency of the beak size of a Darwin finch population change rapidly after drought (fig). It indicates that the natural selection affects the beak size and natural selection is a main driver of evolution. Next article, I will write about the Flamecrest as an example of the relationship between morphology and environments.
*reference Boag, P. T., & Grant, P. R. (1981). Intense natural selection in a population of Darwin's finches (Geospizinae) in the Galapagos. Pereira, S. L., Johnson, K. P., Clayton, D. H., & Baker, A. J. (2007). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences support a Cretaceous origin of Columbiformes and a dispersal-driven radiation in the Paleogene.